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Microcomputers Definition, Types, Application, Features

Microcomputers are like personal computers, designed with a microprocessor consisting of a single-chip CPU that is connected to a Motherboard. Initially, these computers were not popular until the 1970s-1980s. In the present generation, we refer to microcomputers as computers, or personal computers (PC). The mainframe and minicomputer are the ancestors of the microcomputers.


What is Microcomputer?

A microcomputer is a type of computer that is designed for personal use and is built around a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). Microcomputers are also commonly known as personal computers (PCs) and are designed to be used by individuals for various tasks, such as word processing, browsing the internet, playing games, and running applications.


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Microcomputers are smaller in size compared to mainframe computers and minicomputers, which were more prevalent in earlier decades. They are also less powerful but more affordable and accessible to the general public. Microcomputers typically consist of a system unit that contains the CPU, memory, storage, and other essential components, along with input and output devices such as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, and sometimes a printer.

Over time, microcomputers have evolved and become increasingly powerful and feature-rich. They have undergone significant advancements in terms of processing speed, storage capacity, graphics capabilities, and connectivity options. Today, microcomputers encompass a wide range of devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and even smartphones, all of which are designed to provide computing capabilities on a personal scale.

Microcomputers have had a profound impact on society, revolutionizing various aspects of work, education, communication, and entertainment. They have become an integral part of our daily lives, enabling us to perform tasks efficiently and access vast amounts of information with ease.

The CPU in microcomputer includesROM(Read Only Memory, RAM (Random Access Memory), Input/Output ports, Interconnecting wires and aMotherboard.

Types of Microcomputers


  • Desktop Microcomputers
  • Notebook or laptop Microcomputers
  • Tablet and Smartphone Microcomputers
  • Personal Digit Assistant and Palmtop Microcomputers
  • Workstation and Server Microcomputers
  • Mini Tower and Full Tower Microcomputers

Applications of Microcomputers

Below mentioned are some of the different uses or applications:–


Personal Use

The microcomputers are used for personal use like playing games, listening to music, watching movies etc.

Use in Business

Microcomputers in every business are playing very important role as they have reduced the huge paper work. Each organization needs them in order to process huge data. In addition to that, many other sectors like graphic design, architecture companies, film studios etc. use microcomputers. They are also used in retail industries as a software so as to manipulate various complex calculations in the short duration like tax returns, invoices, payroll etc.


Microcomputers are useful in medical field also. They can keep a track of all kind of patients in clinics and hospitals. Lab technicians also use these computers in many complicated machines like X-ray and MRI devices.

Education Sector

Microcomputers have its usage in various colleges and universities to teach the students using projectors. In labs also students use these computers for multiple purposes.

Data Centre Points

In the Data Centre, microcomputers have its usage in editing the computing units, using micro servers as they consume less power and space.

Mobile Computing Device

The mobile computing devices like PDA, Smartphone, Palmtop and Tablets are usable anytime and anywhere without the wireless network because of micro computers.

Useful in Micro Controllers

The micro controllers are useful in the applications like medical, office equipment, robot, and automobile engine control systems etc.

Other Areas of Microcomputers Utilization

  • 微型计算机是有用的在self-customization卧室rd Processing, accurately designed Presentation, Graphic Works, E-spreadsheet, Communications and Database Management Systems.
  • They are useful in real Estate Sector.
  • In Retro Gamers.
  • For training devices in Defence area.
  • In supercomputers to execute minor works.
  • In the development of Products, Services, Infrastructure and Machines.

Features of Microcomputers

Following are some of the features:

  • Microcomputer comes with an affordable price.
  • They are in small size comparatively.
  • They are used by single user.
  • No need of trained officers to use them.
  • They consume less power.
  • It is designed for personal use mostly.
  • They use single integrated semiconductor chip.
  • They consume less power for processing.
  • Produce less heat.
  • They are portable.
  • We can run various software on microcomputers.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Microcomputers



They are used to design different software app. But developers prefer to use them for making smartphones. Computational power is slow when compared to other computers.
They were used in stock marketing. Users might get addicted to misuse of internet or gambling games.
Easy to assemble and replace all the hardware parts. And also, capable of fixing minor problems of computer. No huge storage spaces, need extra storage component to store additional data.
High trained staffs are not required as they are easy to use. Less computing program due to use of low performing processor.
These are useful for students for their research and storing information on the software which is installed on microcomputer. Users might face issues in health like backpain, neck pain, etc. because of sitting long hours in front of the system.
Every user connects to each other via voice, text messages, video, and emails. Online portals like Facebook allows to share users’ opinion online. To get high performance, users have to upgrade PC, but they may face issues as the motherboards are specific for different processors.
Due to their small size, these computers are portable and they can be moved from place to place. No protection power, the data is vulnerable by spreading the virus on the computers.
They are comparatively cheap, so anyone can buy them. As its is publicly available, there is no control on data being published.
They are useful in multitasking environment.
They are fast in calculating complicated calculations in few seconds with the accurate data.

Where Microcomputer Fits

Here are some of the areas where Microcomputer fits:


Embedded Systems

Systems that are designed for a specific task or function are teremd as Embedded systems. For Example – Medical Devices, Fitness Trackers, GPS Systems, etc,.


For some of the special applications this was known as more powerful personalcomputer.

Midrange Servers

Now known asMinicomputers.


Usually termed as manufacturers of large servers.

Super Computers

大型服务器,有时包括年代ystems of computers using parallel processing.

Parallel Processing System

System consists of interconnected computers that work on the same application together and also shares the tasks to execute parallelly.

Difference between the Microcomputers and Microcontrollers


Microcomputers perform several defined and undefined common tasks whereas microcontroller is anintegrated circuitthat performs specific tasks or functions. These single chips have RAM, ROM and peripherals.

Difference b/w the Microcomputers and Microprocessor

A Microcomputer is technically termed as the combination of a microprocessor and its peripheral input/output devices, circuitry and memory but not just on a single chip.

A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip performs all or most of the functions of the CPU. It does not contain RAM, ROM and other peripherals. They can perform the tasks alone. Basically, microcomputers that contain microprocessors are reprogrammable to perform functions on the data by writing specific instructions for their microprocessors into their memory.

Altogether, we can hereby say that these microcomputers can do a range of tasks depending upon the input of its user. They are becoming important for our day-to-day life and plays an important role. We can use these computers to send emails, preparing for presentations, playing games, educational sector, businesses and medical field etc. Since they are portable, we can carry them anywhere and everywhere.

Read Also:8086 Microprocessor – Architecture, Operating Mode, InterruptsMicroprocessor 8085 – Configuration, Architecture, Functional UnitsMicrocontroller – Classification, Architecture, Application, Advantage
Chakrasthitha is a B.E (Medical Electronics) and has work experience in MatLab and Lab View Software as Design Engineer at BCS innovations and Manipal hospital as Biomedical Engineer. She is an author, editor and partner at Electricalfundablog.


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